Potential sources of stem cells as a regenerative therapy for Parkinson’s disease.Stem Cells and Cloning 2010


Abstract: Stem cells are believed to hold enormous promise as potential replacement therapy in
the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson’s disease (PD). Stem cells were
investigated to be the alternative therapeutic source capable of differentiating into dopamine
(DA) neurons. Multiple important signaling factors were recorded for the induction of DA
neuronal traits from mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) such as fibroblast growth factor
sonic hedgehog, and Wnt 1. Recent protocols were described for the differentiation of human
ESCs into DA neurons, achieving high efficiency of DA neuronal derivation. Despite that,
the use of human ESCs is still ethically controversial. The transcription factors necessary for
DA neuron development from adult neural stem cells (NSCs), such as Pitx3, Nurr1, En-1,
En-2, Lmx1a, Lmx1b, Msx1, and Ngn2, were investigated. In addition to replacement of lost
DA neurons, adult NSCs were recorded to provide neuroprotective and neurogenic factors
for the mesencephalon. In addition, induced pluripotent stem cells and bone marrow-derived
mesenchymal stem cells represent reliable stem cell sources of DA neurons. Future studies are
recommended to provide further insight into the regenerative capacity of stem cells needed
for the treatment of PD.
Keywords: dopamine, embryonic stem cells, neural stem cells, Parkinson’s disease, induced
pluripotent stem cells, mesenchymal stem cells

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